The Most Complete Excavator Parts And Functions Guide (2022)

Excavator is a machine that performs construction and mining operations. Excavator parts and functions are essential things to make an excavator work properly.

Excavator Parts and Functions are essential because they will help understand the machine better. Excavators play a crucial role in the construction industry as it helps in digging, moving, grating, and lifting materials for different purposes, including excavation of minerals, earthmoving, landscaping, etc.

Major Excavator Parts and Functions

Sr. No. Part Name Sr. No. Part Name
1 Excavator Boom 17 Excavator Swing Gear
2 Excavator Boom Cylinder 18 Excavator Sprocket
3 Excavator Track Rollers 19 Excavator Swing Reducer
4 Bucket 20 Excavator Swing Motor
5 Bucket Cylinder 21 Excavator Track Adjuster
6 Excavator Cab 22 Excavator Track Tensioner
7 Excavator Arm 23 Excavator Track Chains and Rails
8 Excavator Arm Cylinder 24 Excavator Track Pad
9 Excavator Final Drive 25 Excavator Grouser Pad
10 Excavator H Link 26 Excavator Rock Guards
11 Excavator Main Control Valve 27 Excavator Counterweight
12 Excavator Hydraulic Pump 28 Excavator Driver Seat
13 Excavator Side Link 29 Excavator Cab Controls
14 Excavator Fuel Tank  
15 Excavator Hydraulic Fluid Tank  
16 Excavator Slew Ring  


1.    Excavator Boom

An excavator boom is a hydraulic powered long angled arm attached to an excavator. The boom can be tilted up and down, forward and back, or rotated.

The excavator boom having greater length provides an extended reach that assist in lifting or moving material in highlands, hills or mountains. The Excavator boom also provides essential support to the excavator arm and bucket, without which they are unable to perform their intended function.

2.    Excavator Boom Cylinder

An excavator boom cylinder is one of the essential parts of an excavator. The Excavator boom cylinder is mainly used for the hydraulic functions of your excavator boom, such as telescopic extension, retraction, lowering and raising, and auxiliary hydraulics.

Its primary function is to convert hydraulic power into mechanical force, which makes it play an essential role in the excavation process.

3.    Excavator Track Rollers

Excavator track rollers are cylindrical supports mounted on the excavator’s tracks and run parallel to the main track. These rollers support the weight of the machine.

A track roller is a device that supports and guides the chassis of a tracked vehicle. This system reduces ground pressure and improves traction, keeping excavator tracks rolling smoothly. This will ensure a more efficient movement for your excavator.

4.    Excavator Bucket

The bucket is the most used attachment in an excavator. The bucket consists of an open-top a. The bucket could be either homogenous or articulated. Various types exist for excavator buckets depending on the function you want to perform.

The functions of an Excavator Bucket include digging, loading, and unloading materials, carrying buckets full of soil from one place to another, and elevating material from one plane to another.

5.    Excavator Bucket Cylinder

An excavator bucket cylinder is a hydraulic cylinder placed on the excavator bucket arms. It consists of several parts, including a valve assembly that controls pressure exerted onto the bucket via piston with an embedded piston rod.

The primary function of an excavator bucket cylinder is to move or adjust your bucket. Depending on how far you press the piston rod inside the cylinder, it can raise and lower the bucket through in-cab controls.

6.    Excavator Cab

An Excavator Cab is an enclosure where the operator and assistant of an excavator machine sit. It protects the operator from being injured by falling objects or in case of an accident.

The Cab also gives additional space for working on your machine and provides ventilation or air conditioning, depending on the manufacturer. But one of its primary functions is to enhance visibility and allow more effortless operator movement inside of it.

7.    Excavator Arm

Excavator Arm is a mobile lifting and digging attachment placed at the boom’s end on an excavator. A boom holds this arm and allows it to move up and down. The digging bucket, or bucket, is attached to this arm.

It provides essential support to the bucket. You can swing it away from you to scoop dirt before swinging back to unload into another location for soil or rock removal.

8.    Excavator Arm Cylinder

Excavator Arm Cylinder is the hydraulic cylinder used to control the position of the excavator’s arm. With it, you can extend or retract the excavator’s arm.

It comprises three main components: piston rod assembly, connecting rod assembly, and cylinder body/housings. These components are assembled, which makes them function based on hydraulic fluid. This makes your excavator arm working possible.

9.    Excavator Final Drive

Excavator’s Final Drive is one of the most critical components of an excavator. It is used to transmit the power from the engine to the tracks or wheels. This part has two main functions: connecting the engine to drive axles and transferring power from the engine to drive axles.

A good Excavator’s Final Drive should be able to deliver high torque while ensuring transmission smoothness and reducing vibration. This ensures that all movements are in the right direction and with enough force.

10. Excavator H Link

Excavator H Link is a link in which one end links to the bucket and the other end to the lower arm. This link keeps your excavator bucket attached to the excavator’s arm.

The excavator H-link also helps reduce stress on your machine by lifting heavy loads with less effort than using a regular bucket layout. The primary function of an excavator H-link is to increase the length and height of the bucket when it is being used.

11. Excavator Main Control Valve

Excavator Main Control Valve is an essential tool for your excavator that controls hydraulic oil flow. When this valve is closed, it prevents hydraulic oil flow from entering the hydraulic pneumatic system. When open, it permits flow into that system.

The primary function of this valve is to deliver the right amount of hydraulic fluid so that the excavator can function appropriately by transmitting power to various attachments. An excavator without the Main Control Valve will not be able to use its hydraulic system effectively.

12. Excavator Hydraulic Pump

An excavator hydraulic pump has a primary function in an excavator. This is to pump the hydraulic fluid from the reservoir to all the hydraulic components of the excavator. Hydraulic oil feeds all components, forcing them to move.

The flow rate varies with the pressure within the system; this results in movement at the proper speed. Hydraulic fluid is pumped from the pump to the excavator’s hydraulic components via different hoses or pipes.

13. Excavator Side Link

An Excavator Side Link, also known as a banana link, is a part of the support system of an excavator bucket in any construction. It consists of a shaft and two rocker arms, which operate on an axis.

The primary function of an Excavator Side Link is to distribute the load evenly to ensure balance, stability, and safety while working even in difficult terrain conditions.

14. Excavator Fuel Tank

An Excavator Fuel Tank is a storage tank for fuel. The primary function of an Excavator Fuel Tank excavator is to store the fuel and supply it to the engine as needed. It’s beneficial for your excavator because you wouldn’t be able to run your excavator engine without a fuel tank.

It also makes sure that fuel is not wasted. Excavator Fuel Tank is an essential part of an excavator as it helps maintain the required level of fuel in the engine to make sure that it runs smoothly.

15. Excavator Hydraulic Fluid Tank

An Excavator Hydraulic Fluid Tank is a component in an excavator’s hydraulic system. It stores the hydraulic fluid that acts as a medium of conveyance for power transmission between the power source and the implement.

It has a specific capacity, so you need to fully understand your excavator to know how much hydraulic fluid it can hold.

16. Excavator Slew Ring

An excavator slew ring is a large ring attached to the undercarriage just below the excavator Cab. An Excavator Slew Ring is a critical component in any excavator. Without it, the machine wouldn’t operate properly.

Its primary duty is to allow for movement in one or both directions over an axis. It is used for steering and keeping the boom, arm, and bucket in place when digging. It also helps protect the vehicle from overturning.

17. Excavator Swing Gear

An excavator swing gear is an essential part of the excavator. It allows the boom to rotate so that the bucket can swing in different directions. It also transmits power from the engine to be able to move in any direction.

It is beneficial in your excavator because it helps to have an optimum amount of gear teeth engaging throughout its operation. The swing gear is attached to the swing motor and swing axis.

18. Excavator Sprocket

The primary function of the sprocket is to transfer the rotation power of a drive shaft to the axles that move the track frames, usually heavy and cumbersome. It works by transferring rotations from one place to another.

This means that it converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion. The sprocket also plays a role in absorbing shock loads, transmitting high torque, and reducing noise levels.

19. Excavator Swing Reducer

An excavator swing reducer is a heavy-duty sprocket and pinion gear set that reduces the swing radius of the entire excavator. The primary function is to increase the capacity of an excavator without putting a lot of stress on the engine or other equipment.

They reduce the distance of swing, thereby increasing the speed of work and thus enhancing the efficiency of machine operation.

20. Excavator Swing Motor

An Excavator Swing Motor acts as the power source of the slew ring. Swing motors are hydraulic motors that can rotate the booms of an excavator sideways by using the pressure of oil and conveying or cutting off the turning power they have.

This makes them great for machinery with specific requirements. This motor is mounted on the undercarriage of the excavator.

21. Excavator Track Adjuster

The track adjuster is a mechanical device used to adjust the alignment of the excavator tracks during operation. This device is mainly used to control the lateral movement of the machine and reduce tire wear.

When equipped with a track adjuster, an excavator will have increased stability and lessens ramping effect, which often causes unnecessary damage to trackpads.

22. Excavator Track Tensioner

Excavator Track Tensioner is the part of the excavator that controls the tension on its tracks. It ensures that the tracks remain taut so that the excavator can move smoothly over uneven or sloping ground. The track tensioner allows you to balance your machine and keep it running smoothly.

When there is not enough tension or support for the track, this can be dangerous for the operator and potentially cause damage to other components of the excavator.

23. Excavator Track Chains and Rails

Excavator track chains and rails help move the heavy equipment quickly, as it has higher traction capacity than regular tires. It has replaceable link plates to work for a more extended period.

It has a high load-bearing capacity and lesser resistance when compared with a standard tire. The Excavator Track Chains and Rails help maintain your excavator machine’s working efficiency and thus increase its life span.

It is there to help maintain stability and provide a strong foundation. It also helps prevent the excavator from caving into the soil.

24. Excavator Track Pad

An Excavator Trackpad is a tread located on the undercarriage of the excavator track frame. It guides the machine along the intended track.

The primary function of an Excavator Trackpad is to maintain a firm grip on muddy and rocky surfaces so that no part of your vehicle’s body gets dragged over it. Trackpads are also helpful in eliminating excessive wear on your tracks. It provides a better shielding effect to excavator track frames.

25. Excavator Grouser Pad

Excavator Grouser Pads play a vital role in an excavator. It is a steel plate fitted on the front side of the tracks, which provides more traction and prevents damage to soil, pavement, and other materials through which you are working.

The primary function of an Excavator Grouser Pad is to contact the ground while working. It should have an optimum level of ground pressure so that the weight from the vehicle doesn’t cause damage to any objects below it.

A grouser pad is essential because it minimizes vibration, noise, and shock felt by operators, reducing fatigue while operating an excavator.

26. Excavator Rock Guards

An excavator rock guard is a protective device that covers the sides of an excavator. It is usually made of metal, though in some cases, it can be made out of fiberglass or similar materials.

A rock guard helps protect an excavator from rocks that the machine may loosen. It prevents your excavator from being damaged and thus keeps operational and maintenance costs low.

27. Excavator Counterweight

An Excavator Counterweight is an essential part of the machine and plays a vital function. It helps to balance two or more tons of weight. Usually, it is placed on the opposite side of the boom/ arm/ bucket. The counterweight’s primary purpose is to support the boom when digging or swinging.

It helps balance the machine while providing stability to your device and ensures that it has no difficulty operating, especially when working on different terrains.

28. Excavator Driver Seat

The job of the excavator driver seat is to support the driver, providing comfort and making it easy for him to operate the excavator. Since the center helps the driver and allows him to control his movements inside the machine, it also has an ergonomic purpose.

This seat’s primary function is that it can be adjusted up and down according to your height so that you don’t feel stressed while working with high-impact noise. Sitting correctly on an Excavator Driver Seat helps you drive without feeling any fatigue during working hours.

29. Excavator Cab Controls

The Excavator cab is where the person who drives the excavator sits. It has a control panel, called the operator’s console, to control and monitor the entire excavator machine. Many functional buttons and switches allow you to manage all functions of your excavator, such as bucket control and movement of arm/boom, etc.

You can monitor the current machine conditions like level of oil, fuel, engine temperature, etc. Cab controls keep you updated on your excavator’s situation a, functioning, and

Final Words

The major components listed above and their function are beneficial if you own an excavator. This information is also informational if you want to purchase an excavator.

This guide will help you get familiar with each component so that in downtime or in case of malfunctioning, you can cope with the issue. This is also essential because you can use it at maximum efficiency when you know your machine.

Scroll to Top

Get a Quick Quote!


    Get a Quick Quote!